Saturday, 18 July 2015


Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Guest Blogger Jayasree-Long Ears from India (Part 2)


Long ear culture from India to Mesoamerica – a Vedic and Tamil influence! (Part 2)

Part 1 here

Now let me get back to the design of the ear ornament, the Paambadam or Nagali in serpent design. Does this convey any meaning? Yes it does. The naga or serpent design is associated with none other than Lord Shiva.

The rules of iconography as given in "Mayamatham" written by Maya, make a specific mention of the design of the ear ornament only for Shiva. This is not the case with other deities or semi-deities. For other deities, it is simply said that some decorative ornaments must be worn on the ears. For "Ardhanaressvara" form of Shiva, specific ear ornaments are mentioned. This form shows Shiva and his consort Uma as two halves of the same body. The image of Shiva is depicted on the right half and that of Uma on the left half of the body. Mayan makes specific mention of the kind of ornaments to be sculpted for the Shiva-half and for Uma- half so that the separate identities of these two deities can be recognised.
After describing the hair arrangement and marks on the forehead, Mayan says that the right ear corresponding to Shiva must be shown as wearing a pendant in the form of "Vasuki" the serpent that was used to churn the Meru in the mythical story of Churning of the ocean. In the left ear corresponding to Uma, a "tAlika" pendant or a "pAlika" pendant must be shown. (Mayamatham , chapter 36, verses 82 and 83)
In the above image of Ardhanareesvara found in Gangai Konda Cholapuram, in Tamilnadu, most features mentioned in Mayamatham are seen. The left ear had pAlika pendant while the right ear has naga pendant

From this it is deduced that Shiva was identified with wearing serpent like ear ornament. The Pambadam (in Tamil) or nagali as it is known in other parts of India, must have been popular among Shiva worshippers. Others had used tAlika or pAlika or some design. I don't think Ramanujacharya would have used a Pambadam.
The female side can have any of the two designs according to Mayamatham. The "tAlika" corresponds to "Olai" in Tamil which is a sheath of long leaf that was rolled and inserted in the hole of the ear to make it big. The botanical name is "Curculigo orchioides" and commonly known as eye grass. The leaf was rolled and used as an ear ornament.

Another meaning of TAlika is palm of the hand. Long palm like leaves were worn by women in olden days. The Tamil term "Olai" actually refers to the sheath of the palm leaf that was rolled and worn in the ear. The other ornament PAlika means pot. Pot like ornaments called as "Kunadala" that resemble a pot or a ring or a coil are often seen in the female images in temples.

The pillar carving of Shiva- Parthy marriage found in Meenakshi temple at Madurai shows Shiva with Naga and pAlika in his ears though he it was not his Ardhanareesvara form. Take a look at the picture below.

To our right is Shiva who is seen with different ornaments in his ears. Though this is not the Ardhanareesvara image, the ear ornaments are shown as in Ardha nareesvara. The left ear corresponding to Uma had pAlika pendant whereas the right ear corresponding to Shiva has Naga pendant. We can see that no such differences are there in the ear ornaments worn by Parvathy (middle) or Vishnu (to our left). The naga ornament is so unique to Lord Shiva that the sculptors had depicted it on the right ear.

Generally serpent shaped ornaments are seen worn by Shiva related deities. For example the Dvarapala (door keeper) at the Halebid temple in Karnataka of the Hoysala period sports naga ear ornament.

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The Halebid temple was not finished but the presence of Nandi bull as the Guard in that temple shows that the main deity was in the nature of Shiva symbolism. The Naga pendant of the Dvarapala goes well with Shiva worship.

Checking these two features – ear piercing with long ears and naga pendants as ear ornaments – in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean communities, there is plenty of evidence of long ear culture in these regions. The Easter Island statues were said to have been made in the 13th century CE or after. However similar looking stone statues with long ears were established at Tula (Mexico) around 500 CE.

Look at the long ears. The interesting information is that these statues were built by Nahua people – Nahua sounding like Naga! In fact the Easter Island statues are also tall statues like this with their bodies buried underground.

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The same belief system must have been behind the statues at Easter Island and Mesoamerican Tula region.
The Toltec culture of the Tula region (800 to 1000 CE) also followed ear piercing practice.
The above image is that of a clay vessel featuring a face that has ear ornaments of the "pAlika" kind.

The previous Moche culture ( 100 to 750 CE) that was present in the [Andes] region and around features similar practice. The Moche figurines are shown below.
In addition to the ear piercing, notice the squatting posture. It is also typical of the Vedic society. The priests doing the yajnas will be seated in this posture. This is the common sitting posture for anyone in the Vedic culture – even today.

Inti, the Incan sun God wears "pAlika" type heavy ornaments in the ears. PAlika or pot type is the most common type of ear ornaments among men and women in the Vedic society.

The Tlatilco culture (1200 BCE to 200 BCE) also shows the ear piercing practice and even Kali / Durga worship. See the images below.

Pierced ear is seen in these figurines.

Stretched ears made so by ear ornaments are seen in this image. The dress is similar Indian salwar.

Tlatilco Kali.

The Sican culture in Peru features not only the ear ornaments that stretch the ears but also nose rings!!

The period of this culture is from 750 to 1375 CE.

The nose ring seen in the above picture is common in India. Take a look at this Reddy woman from Andhra Pradesh, India. She is wearing a Naga ear ornament and a nose ring - same as the one seen in Sican mask above.

How could these similarities have gone into people of two different places separated by vast distances?

The mystery is solved in the image of the Mesoamerican Nahua deity called Quetzalcoatl.

Scholars have so far concentrated on the coiled stick of this image. But look at the ear ornament. It is the typical ear ornament of the Vedic society that makes the ear look large. The design of the ear ornament is the same as found in Hindu temple figures. The coiled stick is similar to the danda or stick that Vedic sages used to carry and use as hand-rest.

The Jewish Ashera is seen with a similar stick with a coiled body.

It is the same kind of stick that sages used during meditation.

This kind of mediation of yogic penance is associated with Shiva and his devotees. Even Lord Shiva is shown to be in yogic meditation with his hand resting on the stick. The stick is designed as a coil to resemble a serpent. The symbolism is that the Life force of Kundalini is like a serpent coiled and situated in Muladhara and is awakened by meditation (read here).

The Nahua deity showing the similar looking stick shows from where the symbolism of that image was taken. The spiral or coil of the stick similar to a coil of the serpent identifies the Nahua people as Nagas and Shiva worshipers.

Earlier I quoted from Mayamatham that the serpent ornament of Shiva's right ear was Vasuki. Vasuki symbolises the churning of the ocean. Due to the constant spin of the earth, the mantle oceans and the mantle get churned resulting in occasional upheaval of lava or the mantle elements. The result is the formation of caves once after the lava had created many passages. Such formations are common in Ninety degree range in the Indian Ocean and in Polynesian islands of which Easter Island is one. The Ninety degree range at the end of which Nagaland is situated in India is shown in the picture below.

The dwellers in the caves are called as Nagas as they are like serpents that live in underground or hidden holes. Wherever serpents are present, there Shiva is present to take control of them. The dance of death experienced in the upheaval of the lava is symbolised by the dance of Shiva, the controller of death. That is why serpents, Shiva, caves and places that experienced unnatural deaths and upheavals come together. This is the idea of the Vedic society.

Those who seek protection from snakes and unnatural deaths worship Shiva and wear serpent like ear ornaments. That is how the Paambadam or Nagalu ornaments had come into use. But behind that, prayer to Shiva had existed. The Shiva element may be gone in due course but the ear ornaments and Vedic practice of ear piercing had continued in Polynesia and Mesoamerica.

There are many other imprints of the Vedic society in these two regions, one of which is the Narasimha like image found in Aztec society.

This image has long ears with ear ornaments. The lion mask and seating posture with a being on the lap resembles death of Hiranyakashipu in the lap of Lord Narasimha. This one found in Aztec culture is one of the many features of proof of Vedic Puranic stories in Mesoamerica. How they have gone there is a major issue that would unravel the presence of Vedic features in pre-Columbian Americas. I will take it up one by one in my future articles.

Guest Blogger Jayasree: Is Vedic Astrology derived from Greek Astrology? (Part 21)

Is Vedic astrology derived from Greek astrology? (Part 21) (From Pandyans to Etruscans and Pandions)

This is in continuation of the article tracing the connection between ancient Tamil Pandyans known as Tirayans to pre-Hellenistic Greece. The previous article in this series can be read HERE

In the previous article, we linked the eye on the forehead of theCyclops to the Shiva cult and from there traced their origins to Kaikkola, an ancient warrior class who were associated with Skanda or Kumara, the son of Shiva. {Different sub-sects  of Kaikkola exist in Tamilnadu today}. This Skanda alias Kumara was the king of the Pandyan dynasty in whose times Tamil language was for the first time refined with grammar and a written script.  He was known as “Ugra Kumara” and known for having subdued the ocean (1) His mother was Meenakshi who was wedded to Sundaresa (Shiva). Most of the first Tamil Sangam compositions were on him only, hailing his escapades which are same as what is now known as the myths of God Skanda aka Subrahmanya. These works are lost now but its contents are known from references found in other later day Tamil works.   

The important feature of relevance to this article is that the painting of the third eye on the forehead is known to have existed in ancient Tamil lands. The available reference pertains to description of Goddess Durga worshiped by hunter communities of the Pandyan lands. Whenever the community experienced hardships, they used to choose a young girl from among their clan, decorated her like Durga (called as “KoRRavai”)  and worshiped her as Mahishasura-mardhini, the one who killed Mahisha, the buffalo.

(click on the image to enlarge)

One of the decorative features of this girl was that an eye was painted on her forehead (2).

This girl was praised as Goddess Kumari among other names such as Amari, Gowri, Samari, Shooli, Neeli and KiLai (KiLai is the younger sister of Vishnu who is believed to have been born as Meenakshi of the Pandyan dynasty. The temple of Meenakshi at Madurai traces its origins to this Meenakshi who lived in the submerged Madurai of the First Tamil Sangam). The tradition ofKumari of Nepal who is also decorated with the third eye in her forehead is of recent origin, an adaptation of the pre-existing tradition found in South Indian Pandyan lands. 
Nepalese Kumari

The source of this practice in hunter community in Pandyan land is found in Silappadhikaram which was written 2000 years ago. Their location was near the Western Ghats. One of the main occupations of these hunters was stealing cattle and distributing them to the people in their hamlet. At the end of each stealing expedition, this Goddess who killed buffalo – Mahisha was worshiped with sacrifices.

It was an accepted practice in olden days for the hunting community located in the periphery of kingdoms to take care of the people of the periphery regions. One of the sources of income in times of distress is to steal the cattle in other man’s land. Those who lost life in such expeditions were worshiped as Hero stones. The guiding deity for them was Durga (Mahishasutra mardhini). Buffalo was the sacrificed animal. This practice was seen throughout the Western Ghats. The Mangs of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan were engaged in these activities which were considered as heroic about 2000 years ago – as we see in Silappadhikaram. Due to the ease with which they slaughtered buffalos and cleared the left-overs, they were called whenever dead buffaloes were to be removed. During the time of British rule, they were identified as stealing castes and were degraded. But there existed a time for very many years in the past when this life style was treated as an accepted one. 

The main features of those who lived in Pandyan lands were worship of Durga, stealing, hunting and leading an easy life with booze and their women. 

Looking into further antiquity, I would say that worship of Durga existed 1000s of years ago in the sunken parts of Kumari lands which I would call as Shaka Dweepa, because there comes a description of a place called Durga-shaila in Sanjaya’s description of Shaka dweepa in Mahabharata (3) . The location is near the Equator.  In chapter 6 of Bheeshma parva, the circularSudharshana Dweepa of which Bharata varsha is a part, is described. On the two sides of Sudharshana Dweepa, Naga Dweepa and Kasyapa Dweepa are found as ears of a hare. The Naga dweepa is Shaka dweepa as per the description of Shaka dweepa given in Chapter 11 of Bheeshma parva. It was the habitable Sundaland in olden days but now looks fragmented due to submergence. The Kasyapa Dweepa is the region aroundCaspian Sea and includes Scandinavia that looks like the ear of the hare. 

The Shaka Dweepa is mentioned as Naga Dweepa in chapter 6 where the description is that of the ears of the hare. 

The Ninety Degree ridge of which Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the peaks above the sea level goes further into Indian mainland where Nagaland is located.

The underwater ridge called as The Ninety East Ridge experiences a number of earthquakes according to scientists. From the description in Valmiki Ramayana of the southern region and Mahabharata of Saka Dweepa, it is deduced that many peaks of this ridge were once above the sea level (4). The name Naga Dweepa to this part of the world as mentioned in Mahabharata indicates that there were many caves in this ridge connecting different parts of the ridge. The presence of place-names likeNagercoil and Nagapattinam  in the coasts of Tamilnadu in the direction of this ridge confirm an early land map of scattered islands on this ridge occupied by people. 

In Chapter 11 of Bheeshma Parva of Mahabharata, detailed description of Shaka Dweepa is given which concur with the locations on the Ninety East Ridge and Sundaland together. 

Coming to the topic of this narration, Durga shaila was located to the south of Equator (5). There was the mountain of Raivataka in which the star Revathi (ζ Piscium) was fixated. This is the region near the Equator. 

This star has an important place in Vedic society as the Yajna of Athirathram is done when Sun is moving through the Revathi star. Sun’s transit in this star coupled with this yajna induces plenty of rainfall. 

Mount Syama was located just to the north of Raivataka. Syama means black. Mahabharata explains that the people living here were black in colour. To the south of Raivataka was Durga shaila. Durga shaila means ‘mountain fort’ or ‘hill fort’.  By this name, it is known that a fort was built on this hill (a peak of the Ninety East Ridge) and that it must have been very famous as to have lent its name to the mountain even before the Mahabharata times (about 5000 years ago). 

One must remember that all these are parts of Shaka Dweepa whose presiding deity was none other than  Lord Shiva. This Dweepa had 7 varshas (countries) -something similar to the way Tamil texts explain the 2nd Sangam age as having 7 regions each of which were divided into 7 sub-parts. Of interest to us is the name of the varsha of Raivataka (the country where Raivataka mountain is situated). It is Kaumara! This name is connected withKumara (Skanda), Kumari (the oft talked Kumari Khandam) andKaumari – one of the Sapta Matas  (seven mothers) who is also a personification of Goddess Durga.

According to Mayamatham, Kaumari must be depicted as having a cock and a spear and is mounted on a peacock. (6) All these three are also associated with Kumara aka Skanda aka Karthikeya aka Subrahmanya.  All these are being told here because we will see them all in pre-Hellenistic Greece of Tiryns and Etruria! And we see them in Bharatavarsha (India) too. 
The worship of Durga must have started in Durga shaila and from Durga shaila in an undated past, the worship of Durga could have come to Tamil lands among the Hunter community and then spread throughout India. Read here for my detailed article on this topic. The location of Durga Shaila in the Indian Ocean makes the tradition of painting a third eye a common practice among early Pandyans who occupied Indian Ocean habitat. Shiva as the presiding deity of this region justifies the tradition of painting an eye in the forehead. I would even wonder whether the practice of wearing sindoor or Tilak originally sprang from the idea of the third eye of Shiva, the Presiding deity of Saka Dweepa and got modified later. Even Sita was wearing Tilak on her forehead (7)

The image of Parvathy, (another name for Durga, the consort of Shiva, when she is identified as the daughter of the mountain of Himalayas) found in Uttar Pradesh during Gupta dynasty also sports a third eye on her forehead.

The description of a single eye on the forehead of Cyclopes sounds similar to these Hindu traditions. Interesting information is that similar tradition is found among Etruscans too. The Etruscan origins date back to 1000 BC in pre-Hellenistic Greece and their name as Tyrrhēni sounds similar to Tirayan! Their cultural dominance was so profound that the adjoining sea was known as Tyrrhenian Sea.

The following figurine is from Etruscans.

This is similar to Kumari of Nepal and the description of the girl decorated as Durga in Silappadhikaram. For a comparison let us see another image of Kumari of Nepal.

The Etruscan image has the horns and ears of a buffalo! The Silappadhikaram description of decorating a young girl with a third eye on her forehead says that she is personified as Mahishasura mardhini – the slayer of the Mahisha, the buffalo. In Nepal too, buffalos are sacrificed for this deity. The Etruscan image with the buffalo horns and ears indicate the presence of the same tradition or a continuity of a tradition by a community that was displaced from its original home in the Indian Ocean.

The Tirayan Pandyans were dislocated from the Indian Ocean habitat around 1500 BC. If a group of them had gone to these Mediterranean regions, they must have carried their culture with them. Etruria is the name of the region where they were located.Eyittriya (எயிற்றியர்is the name of the females of the hunter community who conducted the Kumari worship in Tamil Pandyan lands. The males were known as Eyinar (எயினர்). Look at the resemblance in the names!

Silappadhikaram which has a full chapter describing this worship says that they were ancient tribes. The speciality of this tribe is that they used to count the number of heads they had cut of their enemies rather than allowing their enemies to count their heads – meaning to say that they could not be easily defeated by others but they always succeeded in defeating their enemies by cutting their heads. The girl from such a community that comes from ancient times was chosen as Kumari /  Durga, so says Silappadhikaram (7)

The Etruscans also were known for fierce battles and cutting the opponents heads. The Gorgon motif which is a prominent feature of the Etruscan images is similar to the head of Kali. InPart 3 of this series, a note was made on this.

The Kali face with a Tilak on the forehead.

Durga shaila means hill fort. The Etruscan and Tiryn forts were all hill forts. There was no big advantage from these hills as they were only a few meters high.

Etruscan walled town, Civita di Bagnoregio.

The Durga Shaila connection is seen in these constructions. Durga shaila was surrounded by water as it was constructed on a peak of the Ninety East Ridge. The people living in that ridge would have certainly opted for constructing high on a peak and surrounded by walls. The same concept must have been running in their minds if the people from that habitat had shifted to surface region. They had looked out for hillocks or raised lands and set up their habitats and forts. In India too, the Kumari worshiping and buffalo sacrificing people had finally settled down in the Ghats

Many aspects of Etruscan life bear resemblance to early Tamil’s life. Early Tamils living in Indian Ocean were tormented by Sea God, Varuna as they faced sea-floods. Therefore the main festival was Varuna festival called as “Munneer vizhavu” (முந்நீர் விழவு ). There is mention of this in a Sangam text that talks about the festival at a place where river PahruLi joined the sea. (9)This river existed in the 2nd Sangam age and was submerged in the last sea-flood (around 1500 BC). (It is because Varuna caused hardships, he was considered as an Ashura). The image of Varuna is as follows in Vedic pantheon. He is mounted on Makara.

Similar looking image is found in Etruscan art too. The animal is supposed to be dolphin.

The man or boy in this painting is blowing a pipe. Generally Etruscans were known to have liked music and used musical instruments. The Mangs of India who sacrificed buffalos were also good at music. 

Mang musicians with pipes and drums (1919 pic)

The kind of music and dance that accompanied the sacrifice of the goat in Etruscan was similar to how it was described in Tamil texts – which are associated with Skanda cult called as “VElan veRiyaattam” (வேலன் வெறியாட்டம் ). 

In the above Etruscan image, the person on our left is playing a drum. This is similar to “PaRai” – by name ‘Thudi-p-paRai’ (துடிப் பறைwhich was popular in Skanda cult for inducing an effect and even trance.  Like this there are many similarities. My purpose here is not to go into those details but to show that a pre-Hellenistic cult that existed and influenced Greek Thought later was connected with Tamils who followed Vedic culture. They took the ideas of this culture from Indian Ocean region to Greece.

The third eye on the forehead of Cyclopes was an idea associated with Shiva and Durga cult. The region in the Indian Ocean was protected by Lord Shiva whose weapon as axe (மழு). The Etruscan kings used axe as their symbol of power and used it to establish righteousness. 

According to Mahabharata, Shanthi Parva, Danda neeti or the Justice system was first given by Brahma to none other than Shiva, the presiding deity of Shaka Dweepa. (10).  Danda Neeti of Shiva was the oldest Dharma sastra of the Vedic culture. Manu neeti came much later. The axe of Shiva is the symbol of his rule. In Vedic lore only two personalities are associated with the axe. One is Shiva and another is Parashurama. The association of axe with Etruscan rulers as a show of rulership and justice lends further credence to the links with early Tamils (Pandyans) whose family deity was Shiva.

This Shiva transformed into Zeus and his consort as Hera. Hera was mounted on a peacock, a bird not found and not known in Greece. Earlier in this article we saw that Kaumari was mounted on a peacock. Along with Zeus and Hera a whole lot of deities of the Vedic pantheon were remembered vaguely by that community and passed on down the generations. That is how the Greeks got hold of the Gods that resemble Vedic Gods. Ares, the son of Zeus and Hera signifying Mars was but the remembered version of Skanda or Kumara who was identified with Mars and Mesha (Aries). When there is such great scope for pre-Hellenistic culture spanning from 1500 BC to 600 BC to have derived their roots from Vedic system followed by Sangam age Tamils, there is absolutely no point in the claim of our opponents that Vedic society borrowed the idea of Mesha from Greeks.

These Etruscans were not at all same as the Greeks. The genetic studies show them as strangers to that part of the world. They and those who occupied Tiryns were sea farers and were even thought to be sea pirates. All this fits with Eyittriya communities under the rulership of Tirayan Pandyans.

The following is the statue of an Etruscan person who bears no resemblance to Greek features.

It must also be told here that kings by name "Pandion" have ruled Greece! The name Pandion is new to them. There is no way to link that name with any Greek derivative. But the fact is that there existed a king – considered as a Hero- by name Pandion. There were 2 Pandions as Pandion I and Pandion II. There was a temple for Pandion in Tiryns and Tiryns is the oldest hill fort site of this culture that coincides with the period of last deluge in Pandyan habitat in the Indian Ocean, namely 1500 BC. What explanation our opponents have for this Pandions?  Who were they? Why were known as Pandions?  There is more to tell from Tamil connection to Greeks than the other way round.
More in the next post.



1.     Four sources in Tamil literature and Sinnamanur plate inscriptions. The literary sources are (1)ThiruviLaiyaadal puranam by Thiruvaalavayudaiyaar (6th viruttham in 21 st chapter)

(2)Silappadhikaaram (11-17-20)

(3) NaLa venbha (chapter on Swayamvaram -137)

(4) Villi Bharatham by Perum dEvanaar(18th verse in the chapter on the 15th day of war).

2.     நுதல் கிழித்து விழித்த இமையா நாட்டத்து” (Silappadhikaram 12- 55)

3.     Mahabharata – 6-11

4.     Valmiki Ramayana 4-41

5.     Mahabharata -6-11

6.     Mayamatham Chapter 36 – 220 to 222

7.     Valmiki Ramayana 5-40-5

8.     இட்டுத் தலையெண்ணும் எயினர் அல்லது
சுட்டுத் தலை போகாத் தொல்குடிக் குமரியை” Silappadhikaram – 12 – 21& 22

9.     Purananuru – 9

10.            Mahabharata – Shanti Parva chapter 58 onwards.

Friday, December 20, 2013

Ancient Australian Astronomers

9th April 2013
Contributing Writer for Wake Up World
Original Australian archaeology serving astronomical purposes found in the Central Coast of NSW (Australia) is both so numerous in number (>2000 star markers) and diverse in applications (star markers, constellation alignments, solstices, plasma events and possibility of binary star system and polar shifts) and the implications of this call into question many mistaken assumptions of Original prehistory. We propose that this complex is a unique star map of global significance exhibiting sophistication previously unknown.

Australian Original Astronomical Rock Engravings Will Re-Write World History

We are of the opinion the engraved astronomical markers found on a series of rock platforms is without parallel in Australia, and perhaps the world. In consultation with the appropriate Original Elders and Custodians of the Lore and Land, it has been decided the actual location of these sites will not be made public for the time being. Within a span of 3.5 kilometres there are at least 16 major rock platforms which contain no less than 2,000 star markers.
But to begin with our focus has been centred on a section of one rock platform measuring approximately 97 metres by 43 metres (see diagram 1.). Directly next to the area under investigation is an adjoining platform of slightly smaller dimensions and can be reached by jumping across without too much effort. Together the two platforms measure 135 metres in length and 80 metres at its widest point. Within 500 metres of this site there are at least 12 smaller platforms containing astronomical markers. However, owing to the massive accumulation of markers at what we deduce to be the central location, beginning our research at this point was mandatory and we literally took a rain check on the others.
DIAGRAM 1: Northern Rock Platform

Site Description

The section of rock platform charted ranges between 171 metres to 169 metres in elevation. We surveyed, plotted and measured all star markers found within the 5 grids (see diagram 1.), 4 are 10 metres by 10 metres and the fifth, which ran along the ledge, was roughly 14.5 metres by 10 metres with an additional small area of 3 metres by 2 metres running further south-east where the gap narrows to a reasonable leaping length. In total the area surveyed amounted to something very close to 551 square metres.
The platform is aligned to the north and made from sandstone. In assessing the causal agents responsible for these formations, it is of particular note that the rock platform is elevated, near the top of a ridge, nowhere near any watercourse or the sea, and there are 15 distinct natural channels that accommodate the negligible run-off that may occur. Any marking found within or immediately next to these small depressions, no matter how compelling its credentials may be, was not recorded.
FIGURE 1: Section of rock platform

Are These “Star Markers” Utilitarian or Natural Formations (Pot-Holes)?

To begin with, we had to determine whether these markers were made by humans or the outcome of erosion, rock weakness or some other natural agent. Many formations and depressions are, in our opinion, obviously natural, some are debatable, but we believe that the great majority were made by human hands and tools. To assist in deciding what is and is not natural we decided to use the guidelines employed by highly respected Rock Art authority, Robert Bednarik, with the addition of some of our own.
The most common form of natural depression are pot holes. Pot holes are normally created by water eroding the rock surface through alluvial flow, but there could be other formations and natural agents at play. Cup marks can also be created through “cumulative underground stresses,”[1] and are recognised as lithological cupmarks. Solution phenomena can also create pitting and chemical weathering. It is quite possible there is a small 2 metre by 2 metre section of rock at the far end of the first section of platform that has been subject to either underground stress or chemical process, and even though some of the markings look very artificial, we decided not to record anything in that area. Outside that small section we are convinced what has been found and registered has to be either artificial with variants of pot hole formations never before seen.
We believe determining what is not a natural occurrence is relatively easy, but nominating a reason these engravings were made and the function served is more problematic. As a first step, a simple process of elimination can narrow the possibilities. They are not grinding hollows, which “generally only occur on horizontal surfaces.”[2] On site at least 20 % of the circles/spheres appear on slopes of greater than 30 degrees. They are not “game holes”[3] used to trap any prey, nor are they spoor engravings (animal tracks/human footprints), rock mutates, storage holes etc. The only category remaining is by default, cupules, and there are some commonalities, but this generic label is something akin to the ‘poor man’s cousin.’
Bednarik noted that cupules are found in clusters, “often numbering several hundred (even a thousand),”[4] and that “almost all specimens are between 1.5 and 10 centimetres in diameter”[5] and the “average depth is between 10 and 12 millimetres.”[6] And it is in these observations we begin to part company, in that in the most general terms most of what we are charting falls into the general category of cupules, but there are some extensions and nuances not present elsewhere that deserve consideration. There are thousands upon thousands of ‘cupules and friends’ present in this 3.5 kilometre spread and according to Bednarik within the category of cupules, “almost all specimens are between 1.5 and 10 centimetres diameter,”[7] while of the 191 star markers recorded 32% had a diameter of 9.6 cms or greater. More than 75% of the markers on the platform had depths exceeding 10-12 millimetres, so while we believe these markers are artificial and share similarities with cupules, but that is merely a base point, as what has been found here is much more sophisticated and symbolic.
In separating what was a naturally created pot-hole or depression from the engravings made by Original people, Bednarik provided an identifying formula in that in a pothole depth exceeds diameter. He made note that potholes are often found in high turbulence areas, to which this platform is obviously not subject. Bednarik also highlighted the degrees of incline of the inner edge of the engraving as another distinguishing feature. His belief, which we subscribe to, is that the steeper the incline of the engraved edge the greater the chance it is artificial, while if sculpted over the ages through the actions of water, the process is far more gradual as is the angle of entry and exit.
Bednarik, along with nearly all researchers in this field, is hesitant to ascribe an inspiration or intent, although conceding “of the current theories, most associate cupules with fertility rites, or “increase ceremonies,”[8] and we believe that observation holds true in most cases, but not this one.
There are many factors that led us to the opinion there are at least 8 different types of astronomical markers (see figures  2, 3, 4 and 5) found within the area we are studying which perform and variety of duties, some of which will become more apparent as the paper develops. From an Original perspective, first and foremost is the result of our extensive consultation with relevant Elders and Custodians, and the enormous amount of Dreaming stories focused upon “on top,”[9] in particular the Seven Sisters (the Pleiades). It is well known that “the Aborigines were curious about the natural world. They were not only keen observers of the night sky but also took much delight in classifying the physical characteristics of the stars above them.”[10] So ingrained into the collective psyche of Original society is “knowledge of the stars to the Aborigines in their night journeys and of their positions denoting particular seasons of the year, that astronomy is considered one of the principle branches of education.”[11]
FIGURE 2: Star Marker part of the circular classification
FIGURE 3: Star Marker- part of spherical/oval classification
FIGURE 4: Star Marker- cut is not as deep but much sharper angles
FIGURES 5 & 6: Star Markers- note precision of cut and exactness of curve
Coupled with the advice Bundjalung Elder Gerry Bostock gave me when discussing this place, “as on top so below”[12], and the fact that the original Creation Spirits are also called Sky-Heroes, all of these Original truths led us to believe the chances are high that many of these engravings/constructions serve astronomical purposes.
When researcher Paul White was assessing the credentials of the Kariong glyphs in work not related to any astronomical issues we have raised thus far, he and his colleague came upon a set of star markers which immediately caught their attention. Soon after the positioning and alignment of these Original engravings of the night sky was fed into computer software at Sydney University and according to White, “the star charts reveal an unbelievable match with the star pattern above Gosford around the year 2,500 BC. The whole thing is a giant star map.”[13]
If so, how far does this “giant star map extend,”[14] and just as significantly is “the whole thing”[15] limited to mapping the stars? How sophisticated and ancient is this astronomical complex, and in what way if any does this site fit into the present expectations and notions relating to pre-Cook Original history?


We measured then marked out in yellow rope four grids of 10 metres by 10 metres. The fifth section ran along the ledge that divides the two platforms and made an exact measurement difficult, nevertheless we feel 10 metres by 14.5 metres with an additional 3 metres by 2 metres is reasonably close and sufficient for the purposes served at this site (see diagram 2.).
To effectively document the site in a way that can be accurately interpreted through software we took exact measurements of degrees from north, along with the width, length and depth of each star marker. Working from a visually identifiable GPS position within each grid, we recorded the relative positions within the 551 square metres through the measurement of distance and degrees from a central location. This gave us a precise visual representation of the site.
In assessing the possibility of natural agents being responsible, thus creating a gentler slope, we measured the angle of incline from the edge of each star marker then tallied the measurement in degrees into one of four categories: 1. 90 degrees. 2. 89-80 degrees. 3. 79-70 degrees. 4. 69-45 degrees.
In determining the ratio of depth to diameter, we first measured the depth of each marker, then divided the diameter/width of the same marker into that number e.g. diameter 70 millimetres, depth 7 millimetres=70 divided into 7=0.1. Any ratio above 1 means it is probably a pot hole as it is deeper than it is wide, the lower the decimal the greater the chances it is human-made and a star marker.
There are no less than five engraved types of star markers apparent within the sampling we have taken so far, and to be honest there should probably be five selections on offer. But the problem we found was in finding a dividing line between circles/spheres with an inner circle or inner dot (see Figure 7), so for now we are comfortable with three general categories: 1. Circle. 2. Sphere/Oval. 3. Other (which includes what could be a binary star system).
FIGURE 7: Star Marker- circle within a circle
Calculate square metres per engraving, but with attention paid to the distinct clustering of the markers and the apparently deliberate spacing between each set of star markers with the potential it could be a sequential record spanning back in time to ….
Collate a general broadsheet of the 191 star markers containing CTC, degrees from north, dimensions (depth, diameter or width and breadth), a set of incline categories, and concludes with something a touch subjective. But when assessing the calibre of those who assisted, this information seems entirely appropriate: rating the possibility it was natural or human made. 1. Definitely Human Made. 2. Probably Human Made. 3. Even Chance.
We also found it necessary to include some basic details in relation to positioning and size of star markers found at other sites we came upon during our time on country, along with the position and measurements of any non-star markers.


Our first brief was to determine whether this was actually made by humans. The inside slope of inner edge was estimated and the resulting angle was placed into one of four categories. In the simplest of terms the closer the inclination angle is to 90 degrees the greater the chance the formation is not natural.
Incline Degree RangeTotal NumberPercentage
89 – 80
79 – 70
69 – 45
Overall Total
With 98% of the markers sloped at 80 degrees or greater, the chances they are man made is heightened, but in what seems to only confirm the involvement of human hands, with one exception, all 191 star markers, when dividing the diameter by depth, returned a score below 1. The scores were placed in ascending decimal values (see graph 2.).
Value of RatioNo. Star Marker
< 0.1
0.1 – 0.19
0.2 – 0.29
0.3 – 0.39
0.4 – 0.49
0.5 – 0.59
0.6 – 0.69
0.7 – 0.79
0.8 – 0.89
0.9 – 0.99
> 1.0
Overall Total
Only one star marker scored greater than 1, and there are other factors at site that convinced us to include this marker, but what is a relevant statistic is that 6.3% of the markers have ratio from of 0.6-0.9 while 92.2% have a ratio of 0.59 or below. In what only accentuates the overall shallowness of depth when compared to diameter, the largest group is 0.1-0.19 and contains 51 markers and makes up over a quarter (26.7%) of all formations examined. Next in quantity is the 0.2-0.29 group with 48 star markers (25.1%), and combined these two categories account for more than half of the sampling.
With 64% of the markers bearing a 90 degree edge and over 92% having a diameter at least twice the measurement of the depth, we feel confident in declaring that the huge majority of formations selected are indeed human-made.
Of course, the third approach employed in assessing the credentials of human involvement is obviously the most subjective but should not be dismissed so readily. Everyone involved has been on site many times previously and all have extensive experience in seeking out rock engravings and peckings. If a star marker was chosen to be recorded and measured we gave it a ranking from 1 to 3 (see table 3.). An entry in category 1 represented an absolute certainty that the three in that team felt it was formed through human involvement, 2 was regarded as being a highly likely human artefact and 3 was considered a possibility, but natural causal agents could not be dismissed.
Ranking of ChanceStar Marker TotalPercentage
Absolute Certainty
Highly Likely
Overall Total
There is quite a range in diameter/width between the star markers, some are very small (25millimetres) others are over 180 millimetres and the varying sizes are spread fairly evenly throughout the platform. Of course the same pattern can be seen in the night sky, and “it is interesting to note that in Aboriginal astronomy it is not necessarily the case that only the brightest most conspicuous stars are grouped together when forming a constellation.”[16] We set out 11 categories and each tallies a 15 millimetre spread in diameter/width (see table 4.). The results are entirely in accord with what would be expected if trying to record the dimensions and size variation evident in the night sky.
Measurement RangeStar Marker Total
20 – 35 mm
36 – 50 mm
51 – 65 mm
66 – 80 mm
81 – 85 mm
96 – 110 mm
111 – 125 mm
126 – 140 mm
141 – 155 mm
156 – 180 mm
180> mm
Overall Total
These four findings, supplemented by Original advice and Dreaming stories, have convinced us these rock engravings serve astronomical purposes. Just as important, unlike sites like the Kariong glyphs, there are no claims or rumours these markers or even this platform, is the result of a hoax. The real question relates not so much as to what is being charted from “on top,”[17] but the multiplicity of the designs and sizing, and what that could mean.
As noted earlier there are in reality five distinct types of engravings, but since this paper is meant to be an introduction to these sites, simplicity is the best approach. Of the 191 markers recorded on this section of rock platform, 111 were circular while 80 are either sphere or oval shaped. We are strongly of the opinion this arrangement is not random, in grid 3 there are 14 star markers in sequence registering as perfect circles, in grid 2 there is a group of 9 circles, elsewhere the arrangement of circles to non-circles is evenly spread. There are two major peaks in complete circles and two of half the size and together seem to indicate that sequence in circularity was not random.
What was noticeable was the setting, there seemed to be six distinct panels each containing a cluster of stars, towards the centre of the platform there is virtually nothing engraved. Is it possible they are set out in chronological order, possibly each section older than the one preceding? As a result of this accumulation and vacuum the ratio of square metres to engravings (2.85 square metres per star marker) is a touch deceptive. In some areas there are close to 20 engravings per square metre, in others, none.
DIAGRAM 2: Star Map of 191 star markers
Something that was quite unexpected, and became more apparent the further we continued, related to the actual manner of engraving, or, in some cases dare we say it, cut, made into the rock. The incisions are so sharp and fine and some are barely a millimeter in width, and really had us baffled. Coupled with that, there are circles with a circumference that is perfectly circular- there is not even the hint of a straight edge all the way around. Most are much less precise and obviously the result of Original hands pecking then engraving into the rock, and in what confirmed that ancient process, we found one star marker fully pecked but the engraving had not begun. It was as if the person responsible was either prevented or chose to stop before completion. But there is a small but sizeable group of engravings that seem to exhibit signs of a technology never thought to be present in ancient times in Australia, or for that matter anywhere else on this planet.
The ‘other’ category contained what we suspect is a binary star, along with an 11.6 metre engraved whale and smaller dolphin (1.8 metres) beneath. But there were other astronomical markers/figures/constructions which were not entered into any category and merit special consideration. Their non-entry was due to the inclement conditions, and as a result I haven’t seen any of these sites. They were originally on our agenda before the rain came, but nevertheless, despite the lack detail and degrees, the photographs are sufficient.
Within two kilometers of the central rock platform are three engravings/peckings of original Sky-heroes that embrace that title in its most literal sense. All three serve astronomical goals, in two cases this information was shared by Elders and custodians of local Lore. One engraving is quite well known (and poorly misunderstood) and if included would provide clues as to where the other sites are, so we have decided not to provide a photograph or specifics beyond stating that its primary function is to mark out the alignment of a constellation. The other two are, we believe, different representations of Biamie’s (the First Creation Spirit) son, Duramullan. The first engraving (figure 8-this photo and the one to follow are of a very sacred nature and should not be viewed by Original women steeped in ancient Lore and ceremony) is claimed to mark out an ancient plasma event, a time when a massive pulse of energy released by the sun surged through the magnetic channels of the Earth creating auroras that lit up the sky at Gosford.

FIGURE 8: Duramullan possibly marking out a plasma event/Milky Way/Belt of Orion (Courtesy of Bob Pankhurst)
The third Sky-hero (figure 9) is a work in progress. None of the Elders were able to add anything, the image was unknown to them. What I did notice was this Spirit had a club foot and the other leg was longer, this is an obligatory representation whenever Duramullan is depicted, and in what only added to the intrigue his left arm was 100% longer and his left leg 50 % longer. It was as if some massive force was pulling his body towards one direction, could this possibly depict a pole shift, when the Earth’s magnetism was suddenly reversed?
FIGURE 9: Sky Hero possibly marking out magnetic reversal of the poles
‘So utterly sophisticated,’ this thought and reflex reaction has been prominent since our work on the star markers began, every new find expands the directions and nuances.
In what only adds to the horizons opened, the peck marks defining this Sky-hero’s body exhibit a technology that was not present in ancient times, anywhere. The pecking is extremely deep with very sharp edges and this is a very hard rock platform. We have seen nothing close to this definition, until this examination all the peckings we have seen have been more open and flatter. The amount of force delivered to create the depth and precision needed seems beyond the reach of every known variation of rock on rock.
Then there are the two sets of rock constructions, once again they are as unique as they are enigmatic, and we still have no idea how one had remained upright. And once again, we maintain both sites contain astronomical constructions. The three free standing rock stacks/cairns (figures 10 and 11) were constructed on one level rock platform of about 50 metres by 30 metres. What is notable is the complete absence of any other engraving or pecking, there is nothing but these rock markers. The most intricate of the three consists of more than one hundred flat rocks laid horizontally, which looks somewhat like an upside down triangle. That detail and cleverness in placement of rocks is most evident, the fact it can balance such a large rock on the top is testimony to a monument that was constructed with care and attention to detail.
FIGURE 10: Possible astronomical construction (one of three found on this platform)
FIGURE 11: Possible astronomical construction (one of the three found on this platform)
Not far from the three columns is another platform which is also free of all engravings but captive to thousands upon thousands of rocks. All over the platform are discreet clusters of small rocks. Much darker in colour and of a different make, these smaller rocks have been carried to this site to be carefully placed in creating a series of circles spread throughout the platform.
There are hundreds of platforms bearing a few or many star markers, they are everywhere and we literally stumbled upon half a dozen when walking back along the track from the main platform. Just veering left or right 5 metres was sufficient, and in each case there are more nearby, but owing to two days of incredibly poor weather that kept us in-doors, the tally of star markers are less than we hoped for. Equally, all peripheral sites were on our list but were lost to the rain and semi-cyclonic winds. Nevertheless, the little we have observed, charted and measured is ample in establishing some original truths and possibilities which we will expand upon in the “Conclusion/Hypothesis.”

Conclusions & Hypothesis

We deliberately chose this vague label as a device which allows some flexibility, until now we have tried to remain faithful to a general scientific approach, but the temptation to go off into tangents is too great and we now claim license to stray into conjecture and Original Lore.
We are confident the evidence and our analysis is conclusive, the markings are not natural. With that base accepted the next issue to be addressed relates to the time and effort required to create thousands of what we believe to be star markers. This is by no means an easy process, the sandstone is very hard and time dedicated to pecking and engraving was lost to hunting, gathering and sustaining the tribe. The engravings must have been very important to the welfare of the tribe, and we have heard many original Elders, most recently Gerry Bostock, declare “as on top so below.”[18] As to why there was a need to repeat this process thousands of times, the answer is not clear but there are possibilities and questions that must be canvassed.
There is one finding, which was not on the radar a month ago, that stands apart and is the base upon which any assessment of what has been recorded has to be made. For quite some time we knew of the star markers above the Kariong glyphs, and we had already mapped 172, and thought that was amazing. Never in our wildest dreams when ranging through the countryside did we consider that four figures was a remote possibility. But it’s not even the quantity that caught us unawares as it was the sophistication of astronomical applications and the nuances in how this astronomical map was assembled and categorised. Without doubt all that was found and registered was a touch overwhelming, and such was the evolving and rushed nature of our two clear days on site recording and absorbing was a big enough ask.
There are three sites that were never seen on site by any of us bar Gavin Bragg and Ryan Mullins when they were out on another ‘scouting expedition’ that stretch the celestial boundaries. We first saw what they found when Ryan brought out his camera during our enforced stay indoors, the rain and wind was torrential and until viewing these sites, a touch depressing. This lightened the load considerably, the two types of rock astronomical markers and stretched image of Duramullan, were the icing on the astronomical cake. We already knew another Sky-hero marked out the alignment of a constellation, and elsewhere the same Spirit also commemorated an ancient plasma event. This brand new addition only led to more questions. Are there other engraved figures nearby performing the same function, and what of the 16 metre whale, was its positioning and form reliant upon something else “on top?”[19]
Separate to the rocks and engraved/pecked spirits, and in what only illustrates how cutting-edge and advanced their astronomy was, we are confident there are no less than five different types of engravings on this platform and suspect each is specific to one type of star/meteor/constellation/etc.
Our estimate of a tally of 2,000 star-markers is extremely conservative, many platforms are yet to be seen, and it is possible some will never be seen. In what only accentuates the complexity and diversity of what was engraved, and the immediate need to protect and fully research all of these platforms, one deceptively small piece of rock which is claimed to bear hundreds upon hundreds of holes that represent the Milky Way, has either been stolen or is in safe-keeping. Local researcher and historian, Boris Branwhite, noted that “in 2002, a 1 meter by 800 cm (surface area) rock with hundreds of small circular holes was discovered at Wadalba (Central Coast, NSW). This sandstone rock appeared to be a Milky Way representation, with brighter stars having deeper holes. Aboriginal Elder Alan Moarywaala Barker identified this arrangement as a star map. This rock was removed by unknown persons in approximately 2009.”[20]
Then, in what only complicates procedures, all on site independently made note of cuts, curves and angles in the rock that required technology assumed to be never present in this country until very recent times. We are all of the opinion there are some engravings that could not be the end result of any application of rock on rock. Even the idea of a metal blade being responsible seems to fall short of the mark, some of the curves are so exact and uniform and couldn’t have been done any better today, and there are cuts in the rock where the gap is barely a millimeter wide. Irrespective of who was responsible, the fact remains the refined tools needed to fashion such delicate markings are not in the Original tool-kits as claimed by academics and books. This technological anomaly needs to be examined in more detail by a person with the relevant expertise.
We have made reference to the status of the Original Gods as Sky-heroes and the spread of the Dreaming stories describing the Seven Sisters, deliberately so, because it has a direct link to all that has been engraved into this series of rock platforms. The oldest astronomical construction is found at Wurdi Youang (Victoria) and contains a sizable set of rocks that marks “the setting sun at the solstices and equinoxes when viewed from the three prominent stones at the western apex”[21] and is considered to be between 10,000 to 20,000 years old. Star patterns, alignments, solstices, plasma events, eclipses, perhaps even binary star systems, this and so much more has been constructed or engraved into the rocks and positioned along one ridge. Not only is this site more numerous, complex and sophisticated than Wurdi Youang, with a base date of 4,500 years already factored in, it would not surprise in the least if one of these star charts is found to be older than Wurdi Youang.
Moreover, within this cluster of rock platforms there is a central point, one shelf measuring 135 metres, which carries at least one quarter of the entire tally. We have recorded details of 191 star markers, and there are no less than 500 engraved shapes still to be charted.
To the best of our knowledge this complex of platforms is not only the most intensive ancient star chart in Australia, but we believe it has no parallel in the world. In what only adds to the intrigue, not far away many other pieces of archaeology, both engraved and constructed, have been found and they are as unique and even more controversial.
It is agreed that “the oldest art on every populated continent consists of linear grooves and cupules.”[22] In fact it is thought there is a “cupule-bearing rock”[23] in Tanzania “dating to approximately 1.7 million BCE.”[24] Despite its longevity, no-one can trace this style back to its source or inspiration, and “curiously, despite its evident longevity and worldwide prevalence,”[25] it is “one of the least understood”[26] forms of petroglyph. The least we can do is add to the confusion. The numbers, refinement, variations on a celestial theme, complexity and nuances evident in this gallery of rock platforms open new horizons and ask questions rarely considered.
More has to be done, the area surveyed, along with all that still has to recorded, demands protection. But it doesn’t stop there, there is the immediate obligation to correct some of the sins of the past and rewrite humanities’ ancient history paying special attention to the Australian Original people’s role and impact. Past that point the archaeology is open to conjecture and subject to the need for further research. This area has only just begun to give up some of its secrets, but will only continue to do so if every step taken and word written comes about through direct consultation with the relevant Original Elders and Custodians of Lore and Land.
Bhathal, Ragbir. “Astronomy in Aboriginal Culture.” A & G 47, no. October (2006).
Bostock, Gerry. 2013.
Branwhite, Boris. 2013.
Cairns, Hugh, and Bill Yidumbuma. Dark Sparklers. 2nd ed. Merimbula, Australia: H.C. Cairnes, 2004.
“Cupules – Definition, Meaning, Description & History of Cupule Rock Art; Bhimbetka Petroglyhs.”,
Noris, Ray P., Cilla Norris , Duane W. Hamacher, and Reg Abrahams. “Wurdi Youang: An Australia Aboriginal Stone Arrangement with Possible Solar Indications”.” Rock Art Reseach,no. 28th Sept. 2012 (2012).
White, Paul. “Letter to Cathie.” 1999. 

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